Painting and Coating 

Painting and coating processes are common for several different industry sectors. These processes typically generate air emissions and solid or hazardous wastes that are regulated by state or federal agencies. For air permitting, the primary concern from these operations are volatile organic compounds volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, hazardous air pollutants, or HAPs and particulate matter, or PM.

This sector may be subject to state and federal permitting rules, as well as either area source or major source National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, or NESHAPs, also known as Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards or MACTs. These federal standards are performance-based rules designed to significantly reduce hazardous air pollutants, or HAPs. The resources below may be helpful to small businesses which paint and/or coat various metal, plastic, or wood parts as well as automobiles. If you have questions, contact your state SBEAP.  

A major source of HAPs is defined as a source that emits 10 tons or greater of a single HAP or 25 tons or greater of a combination of HAPs annually. If a facility is not a major source, it is an area source (it emits less than 10 tons of a single HAP or less than 25 tons of a combination of HAPs annually). 

EPA resources


  • HAP: Hazardous Air Pollutant
  • MACT: Maximum Achievable Control Technology
  • NAICS: North American Industry Classification System
  • NESHAP: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
  • PM: Particulate Matter
  • SIC: Standard Industrial Classification
  • VOC: Volatile Organic Compound